Instructions to Authors

The Green Life Medical College Journal (published biannually) accepts contributions from all branches of medical science which include original articles, review articles, case reports, and letter to the Editor. The articles submitted are accepted on the condition that they must not have been published in whole or in part in any other journal and are subject to editorial revision. The editor preserves the right to make literary or other alterations which do not affect the substance of the contribution. It is a condition of acceptance that the copyright becomes vested in the journal and permission to republish must be obtained from the publisher. Authors must conform to the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (JAMA 1997; 277: 927-34).

Legal considerations:
Authors should avoid the use of names, initials and hospital numbers which may lead to recognition of a patient. A table or illustration that has been published elsewhere should be accompanied by a statement that permission for reproduction has been obtained from the author(s) or publisher(s).

Preparation of manuscript:
Each manuscript should indicate the title of the paper, and the name(s) and full address(es) of the author(s). Contributors should retain a copy in order to check proofs and in case of loss. Two hard copies of each manuscript (double-spaced) should be submitted. If a manuscript is accepted for publication in the GMCJ, the editor responsible for it and may request a soft copy (a CD or via internet) for the revision. Each paper will be reviewed for possible publication. The Editor may wish to see the raw data (electronic form) if necessary. In preparing the manuscript, use double spacing throughout, including title, abstract, text, acknowledgement, references, table and legends for illustrations and font type and size ‘Times New Roman 12’. Begin each of the following sections on a separate paper. Number pages consecutively.

The standard layout of a manuscript:
– Title page
– Abstract, including Keywords
– Introduction
– Methods
– Results
– Discussion
– Acknowledgements
– Funding
– List of references
– Tables & Figures
– Illustrations

The pages should be numbered in the bottom right-hand corner and the title page being page one, etc. Start each section on a separate page.

Title page:
A separate page which includes the title of the paper. Titles should be as short and concise as possible (containing not more than 50 characters). Titles should provide a reasonable indication of the contents of the paper. This is important as some search engines use the title for searches. Titles in the form of a question, such as ‘Is drinking frequent coffee a cause of pancreatic carcinoma?” may be acceptable. The title page should include the name(s) and address(es) of all author(s). Details of the authors’ qualifications and post (e.g., professor, consultant) are also required. An author’s present address, if it differs from that at which the work was carried out, or special instructions concerning the address for correspondence, should be given as a footnote on the title page and referenced at the appropriate place in the author list by superscript numbers (1, 2, 3 etc.) If the address to which proofs should be sent is not that of the first author, clear instructions should be given in a covering note, not on the title page.

The ‘Abstract’ will be printed at the beginning of the paper. It should be on a separate sheet, in structured format (Introduction/Background; Methods; Results; and Conclusions) for all Clinical Investigations and Laboratory Investigations. For Reviews and Case Reports, the abstract should not be structured. The Abstract should give a succinct account of the study or contents within 350 words. The results section should contain data. It is important that the results and conclusion given in the ‘Abstract’ are the same as in the whole article. References are not included in this section.

Three to six keywords should be included on the summary page under the heading Keywords. They should appear in alphabetical order and must be written in United Kingdom English spelling.

The recommended structures for this section are:
– Background to the study/Introduction
– What is known/unknown about it
– What research question / hypothesis you are interested in
– What objective(s) you are going to address
The introduction to a paper should not require more than about 300 words and have a maximum of 1.5 pages double spaced. The introduction should give a concise account of the background of the problem and the object of the investigation. It should state what is known of the problem to be studied at the time the study was started. Previous work should be quoted here but only if it has direct bearing on the present problem. The final paragraph should clearly state the primary and, if applicable, secondary aims of the study.

The title of this section should be ‘Methods’ – neither ‘Materials and methods’ nor Patients and methods’. The Methods section should give a clear but concise description of the process of the study. Subjects covered in this section should include:
– Ethics approval/license
– Patient/population
– Inclusion/exclusion criteria
– Conduct of the study
– Data handling
– Statistics
– Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA)

Ethical clearance:
Regardless of the country of origin, all clinical investigators describing human research must abide by the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki, and adopted in October 2000 by the World Medical Association. This document can be found at: Investigators are encouraged to read and follow the Declaration of Helsinki. Clinical studies that do not meet the Declaration of Helsinki criteria will be denied peer review. If any published research is subsequently found to be non-compliant to Declaration of Helsinki, it will be withdrawn or retracted. On the basis of the Declaration of Helsinki, the Green Life Medical Journal requires that all manuscripts reporting clinical research state in the first paragraph of the ‘Methods’ section that:
– The study was approved by the appropriate Ethical Authority or Committee.
– Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, a legal surrogate, or the parents or legal guardians for minor subjects.

Human subjects should not be identifiable. Do not disclose patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth or other protected healthcare information. If photographs of persons are to be used, either take permission from the person concerned or make the picture unidentifiable. Each figure should have a label pasted on its back indicating name of the author at the top of the figure. Keep copies of ethics approval and written informed consents. In unusual circumstances the editors may request blinded copies of these documents to address questions about ethics approval and study conduct. The methods must be described in sufficient detail to allow the investigation to be interpreted, and repeated if necessary, by the reader. Previously documented standard methods need not be stated in detail, but appropriate reference to the original should be cited. However, any modification of previously published methods should be described and reference given. Where the programme of research is complex such as might occur in a neurological study in animals, it may be preferable to provide a table or figure to illustrate the plan of the experiment, thus avoiding a lengthy explanation. In longitudinal studies (case-control and cohort) exposure and outcome should be defined in measurable terms. Any variables, used in the study, which do not have universal definition should be operationalised (described in such terms so that it lends itself to uniform measurement). Where measurements are made, an indication of the error of the method in the hands of the author should be given. The name of the manufacturer of instruments used for measurement should be given with an appropriate catalogue number or instrument identification (e.g. Keyence VHX-6000 digital microscope). The manufacturer’s town and country must be provided, in the case of solutions for laboratory use, the methods of preparation and precise concentration should be stated.

Single case reports:
Single case reports of outstanding interest or clinical relevance, short technical notes and brief investigative studies are welcomed. However, length must not exceed 1500 words including an unstructured abstract of less than 200 words. The number of figures/tables must not be more than 4 and references more than 25.

Animal studies:
In the case of animal studies, it is the responsibility of the author to satisfy the board that no unnecessary suffering has been inflicted on the animal concerned. Therefore, studies that involve the use of animals must clearly indicate that ethical approval was obtained and state the Home Office License number or local equivalent.

When a drug is first mentioned, it should be given by the international non-proprietary name, followed by the chemical formula in parentheses if the structure is not well known, and, if relevant, by the proprietary name with an initial capital letter. Dose and duration of the drug should be mentioned in sufficient details. If the drug is already in use (licensed by appropriate licensing authority), generic name of the drugs should preferably be used followed by proprietary name in brackets.

Present the result in sequence in the text, table and figures. Do not repeat all the data in the tables and/or figures in the text. Summarize the salient points. Mention the statistics used for statistical analysis as footnote under the tables or figures. Figures should be professionally drawn. Illustration can be photographed (Black and White glossy prints) and numbered.

Discussion and Conclusion:
Comments on the observation of the study and the conclusion derived from it. Do not repeat the data in detail, already given in the results. Give implications of the findings, their strengths and limitations in comparison to other relevant studies. Avoid un-qualified statements and conclusions which are not supported by the data. Avoid claiming priority. New hypothesis or implications of the study may be labeled as recommendations. Letters are welcome. They should be typed double-spaced on side of the paper in duplicate.

References should be written in Vancouver style, numbered with Arabic numerals in the order they appear in the text. The reference list should include all information, except for references with more than six authors, in which case give the first six names followed by et al.

Examples of correct forms of references:
Dorababu M, Prabha T, Priyambada S,Agrawal VK,Aryaa NC, Goel RK. Effect of Azadirachta indica on gastric ulceration and healing of bacopa monnierang in experimental NIDDM rats. Indian J Exp. Biol 2004; 42: 389-397.

Chapter in a book:
Hull CJ. Opioid infusions for the management of postoperative pain. In: Smith G, Covino BG, eds. Acute Pain. London: Butterworths. 1985,1 55-79. All manuscripts for publication should be addressed to the executive editor.

Any reader can provide feedback regarding published articles by writing letter to editor. The reader can also share any opinion in relation to medical science.

Professor M.A. Azhar
Green Life Medical College Journal